The Baltic theater of war. German conquest of the Baltic States deprived the Baltic Red Banner Fleet of Tallinn, its main base, in two months. Kronstadt, the rear support harbor, became the only haven for Soviet naval forces. German air supremacy and mining, with skilful Finnish help, in combination with winter ice kept the Red Navy penned up until 1944. Only 26 of 1,738 Axis vessels sailing in convoy during 1942 were sunk.
The shallow waters of the Baltic proved a graveyard for the Red Navy's large but inexperienced submarine force.
The Russian Navy began World War II with the world's largest submarine fleet — 218 strong. Yet of all the major combatant under-sea forces it achieved least. For the loss of 108 boats the same number of merchant ships, totalling 245,525 tons, and 28 small warships were sunk. Official post-war Soviet figures were 323 merchantmen (936,756 tons) and 94 warships. In the shallow waters of the Baltic the sinking of 145,063 tons (45 ships) cost 45 submarines.
When Hitler attacked the Soviet Union on 22 June 1 941 its submarine force was unprepared for war. Thanks to Stalin's purges only a quarter of the submarine commanders had been serving longer than two years. Nearly 20 submarines of the Baltflot (Baltic fleet) were undergoing repair or unfit for service. Only about 40 were ready to sail. The 1st Submarine Brigade (N. P. Yegipko) had seven submarines stationed in Liepaja (Libau) and eight in Dünamünde off Riga. Nine submarines of 2nd Submarine Brigade (A. E. Oryol) were lying in Tallinn (Reval) and five in the leased Finnish port of Hangö. But most of these submarines were later transferred to Tallinn and ..............
Stenbock House— Prime Minister Andrus Ansip unveiled the portrait of Juhan Kukk, the author of the Estonian Manifesto of Independence and later Head of State.
Juhan Kukk was the main author of the Estonian Manifesto of Independence. In February 1918, he wrote the Manifesto to All Estonia’s Peoples together with Jüri Jaakson and Ferdinand Peterson. Kukk also organised the printing of the Manifesto in Tallinn.
The Prime Minister recalled that as the first Minister of Finance of Estonia, Juhan Kukk was also responsible for arranging the financing of the Estonian War of Independence. According to Andrus Ansip, Juhan Kukk may also be considered as the father of Estonia’s own currency. At the end of 1918, Juhan Kukk organised the issue of the five percent short-term bonds by the Governmental Payments Office. In circulation, they became, by nature, the first Estonian currency known as kukks (kuked, after Juhan Kukk) and pätses (pätsud, after Konstantin Päts).
In 1917, Juhan Kukk was elected as a member of the Land Council. Later on, he belonged to the Constituent Assembly and the first and second compositions of the Riigikogu. He was the first Minister of Finance of Estonia, then the Minister of Trade and Industry, the President of the first Riigikogu and the Head of State in the years 1922–1923.
The career of Juhan Kukk as an active statesman was short, but meaningful and outstanding. He entered politics together with the birth of the independent Estonian State and left in 1923, when the state had established itself. In 1924–1926, Juhan Kukk served as the Director of the Bank of Estonia.
Juhan Kukk was arrested by the NKVD in 1940 and he died in prison in Russia.
Rein Tammik, the author of the portrait of Juhan Kukk, who is considered to be the first postmodern painter in Estonia, studied at the Tartu Art School from 1964–1974. Rein Tammik lives in Normandy and has held dozens of personal exhibitions in France. His works can be found in museums in Russia, Germany and the US and in private collections in France, Germany, Sweden, Finland, Greece, and elsewhere.
Fabec originally had the intention of constructing a plant at the plot to further expand its existing manufacturing base in Estonia acquired in 1993. However Fabec recently gave up its plans due to difficulties of finding a construction firm and too high expenses.
"Our expansion on the Estonian market continues as scheduled, however we will continue to stay in rented premises", Mr. Peter Fant, Vice President Fabec told evertiq.
BaltCap, the leading private equity investor in the Baltic States, has acquired 100% of the Interinfo group of companies in Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania ("Interinfo") from Interinfo Holding SCA.
Interinfo is the leading operator of "yellow pages" directories in the Baltics and provide print, internet and directory assistance products. Interinfo has operating companies in Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania with an annual turnover of EUR 15.5 million in 2007.
Simonas Gustainis, Partner of BaltCap, who has led the transaction from BaltCap side said, "the Interinfo group of companies have a strong position on the Baltic advertising markets, especially for local services. We look forward to working together with the strong management team to continuously improve the products and services of the Group. Interinfo with its highly trained sales team, comprehensive databases and strong brands will be in an excellent position to continue as the leading information provider in the Baltics."
The reception is of great interest to many : socialites are interested in the latest trends of evening gowns and hair-dos; others listen and analyze the speech of the president, enjoy the concert and discuss the menu of the reception.
Yet the main birthday party of the republic has not always been held in Estonia Concert Hall and it does not take place for the 90th time. Estonia’s first president stepped into office in 1937 and therefore only 3 Independence Day parties took place before the Second World War.
I think it's in our blood to feel so attached to beautiful music," Evald Roeigas, a Tallinn resident who at 97 is older than his own country, said.
As a boy I was singing in a choir myself. The emotions we got from the song festivals helped us to keep our spirit during the darkest years of Soviet occupation," added Roeigas.
Estonia's song festivals, which draw hundreds of thousands of people and have been organised regularly since 1869, have given its people comfort as they have been shaken by the winds of history and politics.
Estonia declared independence on February 24, 1918, after the communist Russian Revolution brought down the Tsarist empire. The country enjoyed only 22 years of freedom, before being reoccupied by the Soviet Union in 1940, seized by Nazi Germany in 1941 and again taken over by Moscow in 1944.
TALLINN – with progress on the proposed new Ignalina nuclear power plant proceeding at glacial pace, there are signs that Estonia is becoming increasingly frustrated.
As a result, talk in Tallinn has turned to the possibility of the country going it alone and building its own nuclear power plant.
Sandor Liive, chief executive of the state-owned power company Eesti Energia has aired the idea, reports the Baltic News Service.
Liive is quoted saying that that Eesti Energia will not rule out any potentially useful project. In his words, nuclear energy is not a goal in itself but represents the second-best option after renewable sources to provide carbon dioxide-free electricity to meet Estonia’s ever-growing energy appetitie.
Liive admitted his company is on the lookout for a suitable location for a small nuclear plant in Estonia. "We are connected with a project and getting information about the development of a sub-400 megawatt nuclear reactor that should be available for commercial use in 2015," Liive said.
But if I am honest, what really irritated me about Toomas Ilves was the fact that he and I had started off in almost the same job and I had become "our own correspondent" while he had become a head of state.
Do not get me wrong, I love what I do.
But arriving at the pad he occupies as president of Estonia - a charming little salmon-and-cream-cheese-coloured mansion in a park built for Peter the Great - I could not help feeling a twinge of envy.
It was not the kind of home either of us could have imagined in the late 1980s when I was a talks writer in the Russian section of the BBC World Service, and he was something similar in the Estonian section of Radio Free Europe.
And it was not the kind of house I ever got.
So when I had nodded at - and been ignored by - the white-gloved ceremonial guards on my way in, I am afraid I was a little less courteous to him than he was to me.
The objective of the agreement is to assure timely completion of the statue of liberty of the War of Independence simultaneously with general reconstruction of the Liberty Square.
According to Mr. Savisaar, today’s agreement serves as a good example of cooperation between the town and the state. "We do hope that the state will contribute to turning the Liberty Square into a representative town square in every possible way," Mr. Savisaar said. "We must cooperate to make the Liberty Square into a statuesque heart of both the town and the state.
"I am glad about both our former cooperation and the agreement signed today," said the Minister of Defence, Mr. Jaak Aaviksoo. "The support of the inhabitants of Tallinn and City Government to the erection of the statue of liberty of the War of Independence is important to allow the joint unveiling of a monument worthy of both the heroes of the War of Independence and those having stood for Estonia’s freedom during different times as a dignified closure of the year of anniversary of our country here, on the slopes of Harjumägi."
President Toomas Hendrik Ilves, who participated today in the inauguration of the monument to the declaration of the Republic of Estonia, called the independence manifest that was read in public for the first time 90 years ago a very modern, currently significant document.
“This is a document that speaks of a civil state on the threshold of a hopeful future, a state of equal citizens,” said the Head of State, adding, “It speaks of the rule of law, as a contrast to the Russian Empire.”
“All the citizens of the Republic of Estonia must find equal protection before the laws and courts of the republic… All civil liberties must apply irrefutably to the national minorities… The government must establish courts of law for the protection of the security of the citizenry…,” President Ilves said, enumerating the contents of the independence manifest.
“These are exactly the same principles that the Republic of Estonia must always rely on. These are rights and freedom that we also have to protect today, tomorrow, and every day. Moreover, we must not give into the temptation to get by easier by abandoning the freedoms and rights listed in the independence manifest,” said the Head of State. “We must preserve and protect the opportunity to live in a home where order and justice rule.”
Some general facts concerning foreign direct investment inflows into Estonia include :
- During the period of 1995-1996 the majority of the foreign direct investments were privatization-related ; - There has been a significant increase in terms of reinvested earnings since 1996. By 2002 such earnings accounted for around 65% of the total annual inflow of FDI ; - There is a trend towards increasing share of cross-border acquisitions ; - Greenfield investments are growing, but slowly.
On Sunday, February 24, at 11 a.m. Eesti Pank presents collector coins issued to celebrate the 90th anniversary of the Republic of Estonia. The presentation and sale of the coins takes place in the Independence Hall of Eesti Pank (Estonia pst 13). The event is open for both journalists and townspeople. The sale of coins lasts until 3 p.m.
The collector coin set dedicated to the 90th anniversary of the republic includes a silver, a gold and a platinum coin. The coins were minted by the Mint of Finland. On February 24, volume restrictions apply to the collector coin sale.
The nominal value of the silver coin designed by Heino Prunsvelt is ten kroons. The averse of the silver coin displays the coat of arms of the Republic of Estonia, the text "EESTI VABARIIK" and the year of issue 2008. The reverse depicts the Wiiralt oak and the nominal value 10 KROONI. The alloy symbol Ag 999 has been engraved on the coin edge. The maximum mintage of the Proof quality pure silver coins (weight 28.28 g) is 10,000. One coin costs 300 kroons and the maximum number of coins one person is allowed to buy is ten.
The nominal value of the gold coin designed by Jaano Ester is fifty kroons. The averse of the coin bears Estonias national coat of arms, the logo of the 90th anniversary of the Republic of Estonia, and the year of issue 2008. The reverse depicts a windmill and the nominal value 50 KROONI. The alloy symbol Au 999 has been engraved on the coin edge. The pure gold coin is of Proof Like quality and it weighs 8.64 grams. The maximum mintage of the coins is 5,000 and one coin costs 3,500 kroons. One person may buy not more than three gold coins.
The nominal value of the platinum coin designed by Tiit Jürna is a hundred kroons. This is the first time a platinum collector coin has been issued in Estonia. The averse of the platinum coin carries Estonias national coat of arms and the year of issue 2008. The reverse depicts barn swallows, Estonian national birds, and the nominal value "100 KROONI". The alloy symbol Pt 999 has been engraved on the coin edge. The pure platinum coin is of Brilliant Uncirculated quality and it weighs 7.775 grams. The maximum mintage of the platinum coins is 3,000 and one coin costs 6,000 kroons. One person can buy a maximum of two platinum coins.
The collector coins can be purchased both by sets and individually. One set costs 11,000 kroons and one person is allowed to buy no more than two sets of coins. It is possible to pay for the coins both in cash and by card.
Starting from February 27, it is possible to purchase the collector coins from the Museum of Eesti Pank. The museum will not sell the coins on February 24.
The collector coins are also available for purchase by mail. Please send your request to the Cash Department of Eesti Pank at the address Estonia pst 13, Tallinn 15095, or by e-mail at firstname.lastname@example.org.
KARDLA - Hearings in the genocide trial of Arnold Meri, cousin of Estonia's former President Lennart Meri, will start in the capital of the island of Hiiumaa on May 20, a judge has ruled.
Judge Mart Reino has set hearings for May 20 and 21. Since the Kardla courthouse is not big enough to accommodate all the parties in the proceedings, the trial will be held in the Kardla community center.
The Supreme Court has already rejected an application by Meri's counsel, barrister Sven Sillar, that the case should be heard by the International Criminal Court.
The West Circuit Prosecutor's Office assigned the criminal case against the 88-year-old Meri to the court in Kardla, as according to the indictment Meri took part in preparations for the March 1949 mass deportation of Estonians to Siberia and led and controlled the carrying out of the deportations on the island.
On March 25, 1949 a total of 251 civilians were detained in Hiiumaa. They were taken by boat to the mainland port of Paldiski the next day and later shipped by rail in specially adapted freight cars to Siberia for life.
Meri was in 1949 a representative of the reigning power of the time, being a member of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of Estonia, member of the Central Committee of Komsomol and first secretary of the Estonian branch of Komsomol.
Meri's activities in 1949 were investigated by the security police.
According to Statistics Estonia, in the 4th quarter of 2007, the average monthly gross wages and salaries of full-time and part-time employees of enterprises, institutions and organisations were 12,270 kroons and the hourly gross wages and salaries were 72.43 kroonsa. Compared to the 4th quarter of 2006, the average monthly gross wages and salaries were by 20.1% and the average hourly gross wages and salaries were by 20.2% higher
Compared to the 4th quarter of 2006, the average monthly gross wages and salaries as well as the average hourly gross wages and salaries increased the most in fishing (44.0% monthly and 53.2% hourly, respectively), and the least in forestry (8.5% monthly and 9.7% hourly, respectively).
The average gross wages and salaries were 11,564 kroons in October, 12,120 kroons in November and 13,174 kroons in December.
In short term statistics the average gross wages and salaries are measured as a component of labour costs. Labour costs include gross wages and salaries, employer’s social contributions and employer’s imputed social contributions to employees.
In the 4th quarter of 2007 the employer’s average monthly labour costs per employee were 16,518 kroons, the average hourly labour costs per employee were 106.27 kroons. Compared to the 4th quarter of 2006, the average monthly labour costs per employee increased 20.2% and the hourly labour costs increased 20.4%.
Compared to the 4th quarter of 2006, the average monthly labour costs as well as the average hourly labour costs per employee increased the most in fishing (42.7% monthly and 41.6% hourly, respectively), and the least in forestry (9.4% monthly and 9.6% hourly, respectively).
Average monthly gross wages and salaries, 1st quarter 2003 – 4th quarter 2007 (kroons)
a The average monthly gross wages and salaries have been given in full time units to enable a comparison of different wages and salaries, irrespective of the length of working time. Calculations of the monthly gross wages and salaries are based on payments for actually worked time and remuneration for time not worked. The hourly gross wages and salaries do not include remuneration for time not worked (holiday leave pay, benefits, etc.).
MOSCOW - Four Baltic nations (Latvia, Lithuania, Estonia, and Poland) have decided to build a powerful nuclear plant together.
The initiative belongs to Lithuania, the only partner that knows what a luxury it is. In the Soviet Union, it had a two-unit RBMK-1500 nuclear power plant on the banks of Lake Druksiai near the town of Ignalina. Lithuania had plenty of energy and exported it to neighbors.
But the situation changed when the Baltic nations applied for EU membership. No country can enter that organization for free. For Lithuania, the price of entry was very high -- it had to shut down its nuclear power plant. There were no technical reasons for that -- the station was working without a hitch, but the European family wanted Lithuania's complete disinfection from the Soviet spirit.
The EU claimed that the RBMK-type reactors were the same that caused the Chernobyl disaster. But the RBMK unit was a water-cooled graphite moderated nuclear reactor and not a twin of Chernobyl, but instead a very successful version of the same model.
The tax rate for the income in the fiscal year 2007 is 22 percent.
As in previous years, a non-resident individual shall be obligated to submit an income tax return and is liable for paying income tax on : - received salaries and management fees; - received service fees and income from entrepreneurs ...
TALLINN - The threat of stagflation appears to have surfaced in Estonia and many parts of Eastern Europe, as economic growth contracts dramatically and inflation continues to climb steadily.
After the statistics office announced on Feb. 13 that the economy grew 4.5 % in the fourth quarter – the lowest rate in eight years – stagflation has become a real possibility, particularly given that inflation has reached 11 percent and is poised to climb higher .....
MOSCOW - Barefaced corruption is rampant on Russia's western border, costing the state hundreds of millions of US dollars, the Russian prime minister admitted Feb 20.
"It takes our western colleagues six minutes to clear a vehicle at the same border crossing points where we take six hours. What's the problem ? Bribery, corruption - insolent, barefaced," Russian news agency Interfax quoted Victor Zubkov as saying.
"At talks with neighboring western countries we keep hearing justified criticism because of numerous traffic jams at our border checkpoints," the premier said.
"The new management of the federal customs service is applying measures - replacing managers, opening criminal cases. But the prosecution and other law enforcement bodies keep delaying judgements."
Zubkov underlined that border corruption causes economic losses of hundreds of millions dollars, adding that investigation materials on more than 300 such cases have been amassed.
"The picture with the handling of shipments in our ports is similar. Containers could be detained there for days unless a bribe is received. There can be no talk about the development of business if such rules prevail," the head of government said.
TALLINN- According to an economic comment the Bank of Estonia published on Feb 20, the government must be prepared to cut its bugdetary expenditures if less revenue than projected is paid into the state budget.
According to the budget passed last year the sum total of the state budget revenues should be 96.3 billion kroons (Billion EUR 6.15).
Members of the government have denied until recently the need to revise their budgetary forecast, but Finance Minister Ivari Padar said a few days ago that preparations for certain major public sector projects should be frozen because of below-target revenue intake.
According to the Central Bank the Estonian economy had been generally moving in the direction forecast last Fall, though the outlook has deteriorated somewhat. Continuing confusion on the world financial markets and the expected slowdown of economic growth in the United States could rein in economic development of the European Union, thus affecting Estonia, the bank believes.
In the opinion of the Bank of Estonia it is likely that economic growth will slow down more than forecast this year, but so will inflation, particularly in the third and fourth quarters.
The latest assesment comes a week after the bank flagged up 2011-12 as its new target date for adoption of the euro.
"The fundamental principles of the Estonian and euro-area economic policy are very similar, thus euro adoption is to be taken as a natural development for Estonia. The reason we cannot currently join the euro area is Estonia's high inflation level, which should fall to the level prescribed by the Maastricht inflation criterion in 2009. Therefore, it is unlikely we can introduce the euro before 2011," Said Governor of Eesti Pank Andres Lipstok on Feb 15.